2023 WAEC Literature in English (Drama & Poetry) Questions and Answers

2023 WAEC Literature in English Drama and Poetry Answers. Get Free 2023 WAEC May/June Lit-in English (Prose, Objective, Drama & Poetry) OBJ & Theory Questions and Answers for WASSCE for School Candidates Free of Charge | WAEC May/June Lit-in English Free EXPO Room (19th & 26th May, 2023).

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Complete 2023 WAEC Literature in English Essay Answers 

Friday, 26th May, 2023

Literature-In-English 3 (Drama &
Poetry)  – 3:00pm – 5:30pm




The play opens in the morning, near the village center on the edge of the market. The ‘bush’ school, that is, the village school Lakunle, the school teacher is nearly twenty-three years old, dressed in an “old style and worn-out English suit, rough but not ragged, but clearly “a size or two too small”. Sidi carried a pail of water on her head and Lakunle complains bitterly about such an act because she is at risk of shortening her neck and also because she has exposed her shoulders for everyone in the village to feast his lustful eyes on. Sidi defends such an action when she says at she decides to fold the wrapper high so that she can breathe, and Lakunle insists that she could have worn something on top as most model do. Sidi becomes furious and reprimands Lakunle to desist from being a village gossip and also calls him “the mad man/of llunjunle. because of his meaningless words, but Lakunle is undaunted because he feels that women's brain is naturally small, women are the weaker sex, only weaker breeds pound yams, bend to plant millet. He foresees that one, two years to come when machines will do those things and he also hints at his intention to turn llunjunle around for good. Sidi becomes fed up with the meaningless dialogue and demands her pail back angrily but debunks the payment of bride price.

Part of Lakunle’s meeting with Sidi is to make known his intention to marry her and she insists that her bride price must be paid according to their custom and tradition and that marrying him without a price would make people think that she is no virgin and that would bring shame to her family.
But Lakunle resists the idea and describes it as a savage custom that is barbaric and uncivilized. He goes further to educate Sidi on the implication of payment of the bride price and his plan. Lakunle calls Sidi a bush and uncivilized girl who does not want to appreciate and accept civilized romance and ideology.
The introductory part of this play between Sidi and Lakunle shows the cultural gap versus modernity.



Throughout the play, Jimmy habitually subjects Helena to verbal and emotional assaults, employing her as a receptacle for his pent-up frustrations. His interactions with her are marked by an air of hostility, disdain, and biting sarcasm. Frequently, Jimmy derides Helena's privileged upper-class background, readily dismissing her perspectives and values. Jimmy's treatment of Helena appears to derive from his general dissatisfaction and anger with the world, as well as his own personal circumstances, rather than from any sincere romantic sentiment.

While Jimmy's exchanges with Helena may occasionally exhibit a flirtatious undertone and sporadic instances of camaraderie, they fail to provide a strong basis for genuine romantic love. Instead, their interactions are predominantly characterized by mutual disdain and antagonism, as well as a shared exasperation with social and political systems they perceive as oppressive.

No (2)

Foreshadowing is a device used in literature to hint at events that will happen later in the story. Shakespeare's play 'Hamlet' is full of foreshadowing, and these subtle hints are used to build tension, create suspense, and foreshadow the tragic ending of the play.

One of the most powerful examples of foreshadowing in the play occurs in Act 1, Scene 5, where Hamlet speaks to the ghost of his father. At the end of the scene, the ghost warns Hamlet not to harm his mother, as she will be punished by God for her sins. This foreshadows the tragic ending of the play, as both Hamlet and his mother meet their fate at the hands of the vengeful Laertes.

Another example of foreshadowing is the appearance of the players in Act 2, Scene 2. These actors will later perform a play that Hamlet has written, which will mirror the events of the play and help him to reveal Claudius's guilt. This scene foreshadows the eventual downfall of the villainous king, even as he plots to destroy Hamlet.

Soliloquies are another powerful literary device used in the play. Shakespeare uses soliloquies to give insights into the characters' minds, and to reveal their deepest thoughts and feelings. One of the most famous soliloquies in the play is Hamlet's 'To be or not to be' speech. This powerful soliloquy reveals Hamlet's inner turmoil and his struggle with the idea of suicide.

Another notable soliloquy occurs in Act 3, Scene 1, when Hamlet confronts Ophelia. In this emotional speech, Hamlet expresses his frustration with Ophelia's inability to understand his pain. This soliloquy reveals Hamlet's deep-seated misogyny, and his belief that women are incapable of understanding the complexities of his mind.

In conclusion, the use of foreshadowing and soliloquies in Shakespeare's 'Hamlet' helps to create a richly complex and layered work, full of tension, emotion, and hidden meanings. These literary devices allow the audience to delve deeper into the minds of the characters, and to anticipate the tragic ending of the play.


in "Fences" by August Wilson. However, based on the events and interactions portrayed in the play, one can infer why Bono is committed to his friendship with Troy.

Firstly, Bono and Troy have known each other for a long time, and their friendship has endured through various challenges and hardships. Bono has seen Troy's strengths and weaknesses, and vice versa. This familiarity and history create a strong bond of loyalty, respect, and familiarity.

Secondly, Bono admires Troy's work ethic and sense of responsibility. Despite facing racial discrimination and economic obstacles, Troy has worked hard to provide for his family and maintain his sense of dignity. Bono respects his friend's determination and perseverance, which inspires him to support him through thick and thin.

Lastly, Bono genuinely cares about Troy's well-being and wants him to be happy. He listens patiently to Troy's stories and concerns, and provides him with emotional support when needed. Bono is a true friend who stands by Troy's side even when he disagrees with his actions.

In conclusion, Bono is committed to his friendship with Troy because of their shared history, admiration for Troy's work ethic, and genuine care for his well-being. Their friendship is a source of mutual support, respect, and comfort.

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A compelling comparison can be drawn between Adah and Francis based on their roles within their marriage and as individuals.

In the prose narrative, the marriage between Adah and Francis is portrayed as a perilous union driven by self-interest. Adah harbors a burning desire to work hard and financially support her immediate family and her husband. However, Francis cunningly seeks to exploit Adah for his own benefit. Adah is discontented with her mother's decision to remarry, perceiving it as a betrayal of her late father. Consequently, she feels compelled to shoulder the financial burden by saving her family from their humiliating circumstances.

Adah frequently dreams of marrying a wealthy man who would accommodate her mother and younger brother, providing a solution to their numerous problems. However, the suitors she encounters are often elderly individuals whom she cannot bring herself to stay with, as she would be reduced to a subservient role and forced to address them as "Sir," even behind their backs. In Adah's community of Ibuza, marriage is viewed as a master-servant relationship, where women are expected to serve men, bear numerous children, and care for them without much assistance from the fathers. Education for girls is disregarded, as it is believed to foster arrogance and irresponsibility in women. Consequently, Adah is denied access to formal education at a young age, while her younger brother, Boy, is already attending school.

In this retelling, the focus remains on the contrasting roles played by Adah and Francis within their marriage and as individuals.

However, despite the challenges, Adah decides to marry Francis, a young man who is still studying to become an accountant at a very young age. Unfortunately, Francis is unable to afford the expensive bride price of five hundred pounds that Adah's mother and other family members demand, even though they never contributed to her education. As a result, they refuse to attend Adah's wedding.

While it cannot be definitively said that the union between Adah and Francis lacks love as its foundation, Francis's actions and behavior suggest a parasitic rather than symbiotic relationship. Adah's hard work, dedication to her family, and substantial salary seem to be the only driving forces behind their love and marriage, as Francis refuses to take on any job or contribute to the family's well-being. He shows no initiative and constantly writes to Adah's parents to meddle in issues that could be resolved between them. This becomes evident when he discovers that Adah has sought a family-planning method without his consent.

To Francis, a woman in a marriage is a second-class individual, merely someone to sleep with, bear numerous children for, and abandon if she refuses to comply. He believes her role is limited to household chores and preparing meals at any given time, without the need for intelligent conversation, as he considers her to be senseless and lacking in value. Francis crushes Adah's dream of becoming a writer, as he believes his family would disapprove if his wife were allowed to write a book.

The only thing Adah receives for being the breadwinner of her family is mistreatment, physical and verbal abuse, insults, neglect, and rejection. Francis shows no care for his children and even goes so far as to reject them in court, expressing a willingness to have them put up for adoption. Consequently, Adah considers the union between her and Francis to be loveless, as he refuses to understand her perspective or respect their family. She vows to do everything in her power to raise their five children, as Francis has refused to contribute to their well-being before they ultimately part ways. Adah's determination to never let her children down serves as a resolute promise.

In this dynamic, Adah emerges as a fighter for survival, a dreamer, and a self-motivator. She exhibits patience and unwavering dedication to hard work. On the other hand, Francis is portrayed as a quiet and visionless young man, rigid in his beliefs, prone to violence, and incapable of serving as a role model for his children.
Nii, concerned about his wife Massa's persistent illness, decides to take her to a spiritualist for help. Although the spiritualist's caring powder provides some relief by stopping Massa's frequent stooling, the journey to the village is arduous and challenging. Unfortunately, Massa's condition deteriorates during the trip, causing her to lose consciousness in the vehicle. Nii pleads with the driver to take them to a nearby hospital for medical attention, but his pleas fall on deaf ears.

Upon arrival at the hospital, Nii is directed to an office where he is informed of the fees for using the hospital mortuary. He is required to pay one hundred cedis per day, and the cost increases if the corpse remains in the mortuary for more than three days. Nii's mind becomes occupied with various concerns, such as the expenses of transporting the body, arranging for the burial, purchasing a coffin, clothing, and drinks. Overwhelmed by these thoughts, Nii leaves Massa's lifeless body behind and embarks on a journey.

Mama and Joe, having discovered that Massa was the late wife of their brother, decide to transport her corpse to Sampa village for burial. The procession to the cemetery is filled with warmth and welcoming gestures from the townspeople, who appreciate Mama and Joe's efforts in bringing Massa's body home. During their journey, Mama learns an important fact about Massa: she had been an adopted child who had not visited the village for a long time.

Finally, Massa is given a dignified burial, marking the end of the funeral rites and providing closure for her loved ones.

2023 WAEC Literature in English Essay Answers


The narrator’s encounter with Kimbro is seen at the liberty paint plant.
The narrator’s entrance to the paint plant is uneventful as he must cross a bridge in the fog, implying that, he is unable to see out around him. The narrator is sent to Mr. Kimbro who will serve as his boss. This man dishes out instructions and also asks the workers not to ask questions. The narrator’s first job is with the pure white paint the company is known for. When the narrator mixes the wrong ingredient into the paint because he is afraid to ask Kimbro questions, the paint turns a dull grey underneath the white. Kimbro notices the difference and he’s fired from the job and he’s sent to another Boss, Mr. Brockway, who has a position in the basement as a sort of engineer. Brockway bombards the narrator with numerous questions about his past before he gives him a job.

It was after the sacked of the Narrator by Kimbro that he had another bad encounter with his new boss and it was at the point of explanation that the new Boss Brockway who explodes in anger at his participation in a union. Brockway physically attacks him, refusing to listen to his explanation. The narrator becomes enraged and fights off Mr. Brockway, knocking his teeth out. As a result of inattention to the gauges in the room, the pressure goes over the allotted mark, the narrator tries to pull the value back under control all to no avail. The tank bursts and the narrator is knocked unconscious.


Ras represent the white man perceptions and treatments of blacks using poet.
The poet use of rhetorical question beginning from In stanza 2, the poet laments further that if Africans ”Cry roughly” of their torments which started from the colonial times which he refers to as, ”… the start of things”, he wonders who will watch their ”large mouths” when they yell for help.
In stanza 3, the poet continues to lament that nobody will be emotional(represented by ‘heart’) enough to listen to their ‘clamouring’ and if by chance, they realize their predicament and grow angry, nobody will hear them as he terms any late realisation and anger as, ‘pitiful’. In stanza 4 & 5, the poet supports the reoccurring belief that the dead serve as ancestors and protect the living from evil forces. In these stanzas,the poet wonders that when the living dies (our dead) and meet the ancestors (their dead) whose advice has fallen on deaf ears and whose ‘wild appeals’ have been ignored, they (the living, now dead) would remember their warnings and regret not ever listening. The poet continues that they (the ancestors) left their signs on earth, water and air for their ”blind, deaf and unworthy sons” who see ‘nothing’ they have made. In stanza 6, the poet continues that since the Africans did not heed the advice of their ancestors, he wonders who will hear their ‘sobbing hearts’ when they ‘weep gently’.

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